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Monday, June 30, 2008

A man’s education alienates him from his own people

“It is always a pity when a man’s education alienates him from his own people”. Discuss.

The statement assumes that when a man is educated it alienates him from his people. Let us look at how well educated he is. Education is not merely getting certain diplomas and degrees. Education is to civilize the man and to draw the best in him. It must result on an all rounded personality, physically, mentally, intellectually, morally and spiritually. He is humble, able to look after himself and others, can act as the occasion demands, morally upright and can be useful to himself and to others.

What do we see today? The so-called educated class displays their snobbery. They form a class apart from others. They think they know too much and they should not be found in ordinary man. The so called educated is good at quoting from books and papers he has read. His morals are only superficial.

The fruit of his knowledge does not normally filter to the ordinary level. So the fruits of his knowledge are no more fruits since they do not reach the common man for further propagation. This snobbery is seen even among the members of a family especially when the son educated in a collage begins to look down upon his own parents and their ways of life. The life in a hostel does not normally improve the character of a student. Hostel is after all a place where one pays for the services and having enjoyed certain conveniences the educated boy or girl returns home only to find things very different. He cannot adjust himself to the common surroundings since he has had a taste of the artificial world outside. Thus the educated man is an alien in his own home and familiar surroundings.

In most countries the type of education given is only to fit the student for a particular job; very rarely is education given to fit him for life outside. Very often a student going to a western country tries to ape the habits, way of life and puts on artificial ways of talking.

In order to overcome this lopsided development, educationists from Rousseau downwards have recommended methods where the child will learn in a natural atmosphere instead of being pulled out of it. The glamor of studying abroad is always attractive. There is a need for change in the philosophy of education so that the life’s purpose may be made clear and the objectives or goals are reached.
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Describe a sports-meeting

Describe a sports-meeting.

Sports lovers here always look forward to the month of August or September because of the Inter School Sports-meeting. These occasions used to be very colorful and attractive. Just like the previous years, this year’s sports-meeting was enjoyable.


It was held in the Thong Nhat Stadium in Ho Chi Minh city. The stadium was cheerfully decorated for that purpose. The bitumen tracks were neatly marked with white paint. The sports officials were in their official badges and the whole day they were busy with preparations. At about 2 p.m. that day, there was a march past by athletes in their respective school colors and flags. The chief Education Officer took the salute. With the singing of the Nation Anthem and the hoisting of the National Flag, he declared the meeting open.

There were many interesting events. There were also separate events for boys and girls. The competitors were tense and serious. They were in excellent physical fitness. Some new records were set in the 100, 200 and 400 meter races. The hurdles and relays were some of the interesting track events. The girls’ events added some color and mirth to the spectators. Of the girls’ items, the tug-of-war was a never ending source of merriment. Throughout the events, our school band was in attendance.

After the meeting was over, the Chief Education Officer gave the trophies and certificates to the winners. He complimented the athletes on their performance. The Secretary of the Inter School Sports Council thanked the distinguished guests for their presence. With the singing of the Nation Anthem, the meeting came to a grand close.

On that particular day, we shared the atmosphere of real joy and gladness. It is one of the most enjoyable days in our academic life.
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Advertising is a way to draw the attention of the public

Advertising is a way to draw the attention of the public. Discuss.

Advertisement is highly developed nowadays. To some extent nature itself advertises her wares; for instance, the color and smell of flowers is nothing but advertisement to attract the attention of insects and birds and the promise of honey is the gift.

Advertising is one of the media to draw the attention of the public and to educate them regarding a particular product. This is called the psychology of persuasion in converting people to a way of life or thinking. For example, to introduce a new drink, it is not enough if the product is good; the public should be made to realize its existence. The manufacturer adopts subtle ways to advertising. It must appeal visually. Since advertisement has become very important and the methods used are many, it has become a very professional trade today. In fact, advertising agencies do good business. Since they employ specialists like artists and script writers, the advertiser can have expert service at a price.

There are hundreds of ways of advertising. Generally they may have visual, audio and audiovisual appeal. Leaflets and brochures are produced describing a colorful product. Free samples are given, so that new customers may be found. Calendars are quite common and there are very plain ones to picturesque ones. Calendar manufacturing during the end of the year is a big business.

Perhaps one of the most popular medium of advertisement is the newspaper, since they reach a very wide section of public. Some products are advertised throughout the year and they generate a source of income for the newspaper. Here the picture and the script play a very important part. Nowadays small gifts like key chains, purses, table wares and so on are used to advertise.

If the same advertisements are issued for too long they become boring. The advertiser knows this, so he changes the mode of advertisement from time to time. Either the pictures may be changed or the script. Sometimes subtle sex appeal is thrown in by advertising agencies. Whether this is ethically correct is a debatable point.

Any advertisement cannot be useless. It has got a purpose. An advertiser can use a ton of paper for printing his advertisement and distributing it to various houses to get the message of his product across. Throwing to the public just like throwing some mud on the wall, some of it is sure to stick. Advertisement then brings the prospective buyer and the product man nearer. With a complex market where there are dozens of products competing, advertisement is one of the ways of winning the market.

Of course there are advertisements which are really misleading. Some medicines that are advertised claim to be panacea for all bodily ill but very few products claimed that honor. Some of the products are not that high quality as claim by the advertisement.

We can conclude that in spite of its limitations, advertisement is a powerful media that has come to stay.
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Should women carry out the combat duty?

Should women carry out the combat duty? Discuss.

Women should not be drafted for combat duty. It is not practical. The army would need to set up two facilities for everything. It would need to set up two sleeping quarters, two sets of showers and two latrines. The actual amount of work and supplies involves in setting up camp would double. More supplies and equipment in the field would slow down troop movement considerably. Our troops would lose any advantage they would have for surprise attack. We need an incredible amount of backup support for men. It is not practical to double that in wartime.

Women are not strong enough emotionally. Women are not strong enough physically. It takes a lot of strength and courage to be in actual physical combat. You need to be strong enough to kill people without pangs of regret. Women could be strong. Women are sheltered. They are not taught to be strong. Men are taught to be strong. Women could not stand to see their best friend get hit by a shell and die in front of their eyes. Women are not strong enough to handle killing and dying. Maybe they could be strong enough emotionally. They are not strong enough physically. Most women could not throw ninety-pound ammunition cases into a struck all day. Most women could not win in close hand-to-hand combat against a man. Women do not have the strength for combat duty.
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Sunday, June 29, 2008

Things I dislike most

The things I dislike the most

The outline:
1. What things?
2. Description of each item
3. Why I dislike them
4. the end

There are many things that I dislike; but the ones I dislike the most are noise, crowds and laziness.

Noise disturbs me greatly. This is why I hate to live in a city. In a city, vehicles run to and fro dawn till midnight. This makes the city very noisy indeed. The voices of thousands of people living close to one another also add to the noises caused by the vehicles. Besides, there are noises from the factories in a city.

I also dislike crowds. Crowds make movement difficult. If a place is crowded, it is not easy to move about or to do any work quickly. If we are in a hurry to go somewhere, a crowd can delay our progress.

Finally, I hate laziness because a lazy boy is a problem not only to his parents but also to others. By refusing to do any work, he compels others to do for him. Sometimes a weak and poor person has to work hard to bring food for a strong and healthy person who is lazy. Such a person is really bad and ill-mannered. As long as he gets what he needs and wants, he does not care what others think of him. I hate to see such a person, even if he is my own brother or father.

I hate all the three things I have mentioned.

Word-meaning:
Compel = force
Delay = make slow
Finally = lastly
Hate = dislike strongly
Mentioned = named, told
Progress = moving forward
Refusing = not doing what one is told to do
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The person you like most

The person I like most

The outline:
1. Who?
2. What kind of person
3. Why I like him or her
4. Is there any other person like him or her?
5. The end

Of all the people in the world, I like my dear mother the most.

Everyone knows that mother’s love is the greatest in the world. When I see how my mother behaves towards my father, brothers, sisters and me, I am filled with pride. In everything that she does, there is a touch of love. Even when she washes the dishes, she makes sure that they are clean so that no one in her family will become ill.

Though she sometimes scolds me, I know that she does so not because she is bad but because she is tired, working all day for the happiness of the family. So I keep quiet while she expresses her anger, so that she may feel a little relieved.

The she loves her family is proved every day. When my youngest brother is very hungry late in the night and cries for milk, she wakes up at once to make for him, even if she is tired or ill. In the same way, she wakes up before all the others and goes to bed last, so that everyone in the family can receive her care. If anyone in the family is ill, she is the one who is the most worried.

Such care and love no one in the world can give to me. For these reasons my mother will always the dearest person to me.

Word-meaning:
Express = make known by words, looks or actions
Relieved = lessening of pain
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How I learned to swim

How I learned to swim

The Outline:
1. Is swimming exciting or not?
2. Why I wanted to learn how to swim
3. Who taught me?
4. How happy I feel after learning it

Swimming is one of the best pastimes that people have. Learning how to swim is indeed very exciting.

It was my sister who taught me how to swim. Every day, for about a week, she took me to the swimming pool in the park in my town and spent about three hours teaching me how to swim.

However, the first lesson that I had in swimming was very unpleasant. I sank several times and not only drank a lot of water but also let some to enter my nose. At times I felt as though I was drowning. My sister did not seem to be very helpful. I blamed her every time I had some difficulty in the water. She always responded it by laughing and irritating me more.

On the next day I was not keen to go to the pool. I did not wish to learn how to swim any longer. My sister then told me that she was not trying to be cruel to me.

So I followed her to the pool for the second time. That day I was able to keep my nose above the water. My sister was more helpful. She allowed me to use a rubber tube whenever I felt tired. I began to like her lessons.

Finally, after about a week, I could swim without the tube. I was delighted and thanked my sister profusely.
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A visit to an estate

A visit to an estate

The outline: When? With whom? Why? Description of estate

I have always lived in the town. The thought of visiting an estate had never occurred to me. Then, one day, my friend, Kok Kee, asked me if I would like to visit an estate with him.

After Kok Kee asked me the question, I began to think if it might be worth while visiting an estate, which I had always considered to be nothing more than a jungle. After some thought, however, I agree to go with him, and we fixed a day for the visit.

When the day arrived, Kok Kee and I left our homes early in the morning by bicycle to visit the nearest rubber estate. We cycled for about an hour before we reached the estate.

The first thing that attracted my attention was the size of the estate. It was very big indeed. Thousands of rubber trees could be seen all around. They were all arranged in straight rows. Many tappers were engaged in their work. We stopped at various places to see how a tree was tapped. We also saw the streams which were full of fish. The water in them was as clear as crystal and the fish in it could be seen clearly.

We then visited the factory, the office, the dispensary, the staff and labour quarters in that estate. They all looked very clean and interesting. From the estate office we could see the beautiful mountain in the distance. We also saw the beautiful swimming pool and the green fields around.

All these made the visit very interesting indeed. I therefore enjoyed the visit greatly, and my ideas about estates have changed since that visit.
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Saturday, June 28, 2008

The market in my town

The market in my town

The outline:
1. How big it is
2. How many people visit it
3. What happens inside
4. Ending (Conclusion)

The market in my town is large. Hundreds of people visit this market every day.

The market in my town is always alive with activity, like any other big market. Every moment buyers and sellers can be seen moving about in all directions. Sellers try to raise the prices of their goods as much as they can. Buyers, on the other hand, try to reduce the prices to save some money. Thus, much bargaining goes on between buyers and sellers. Sometimes quarrels arise from this kind of bargaining.

The presence of the large number of people in the market makes the market very noisy indeed. Voices are heard in every corner. Sometimes some vehicles bring fresh goods into market and add to the noises. Even the last painful cries of chickens and ducks put to death for man’s appetite form an important part of the noises.

However, as the market is large, almost every item of food that a person needs for his home is available. One does not have to go elsewhere in search of essential articles.

The building is new beautiful. It is a two-storey building. It therefore has a large number of stalls. Thus, it is a market worth visiting.

Word-meaning:
Activity = a lot of a work
Appetite = strong wish for food
Articles = items, things
Available = can be got
Essential = very important
Raise = make higher or more
Reduce = make less or lower
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The use of television

The use of television

The outline:
A wonderful invention
Why it is popular
Why it is useful
The end

Television enables us to see things in distant places. It is indeed one of the most wonderful things that man has ever invented.

Television not only entertains people but also teaches people a variety of important things. Through this wonderful invention we learn about people and events thousands of miles away. Pictures taken in all parts of the world are also shown on television for entertainment as well as for instruction. Short films based on popular stories are often shown which entertain millions of people all over the world.

In some countries television is used to teach pupils and students many useful lessons. Students who cannot go to school because of transport or other problems are taught all their lessons at home through television.

As television appeals to the eye instead of the ear, people enjoy watching more than listening to the radio. Listening requires knowledge of many things, but what we see with our eyes explains that itself.

For all these reasons, there is no doubt that television will continue to be popular for a long time.

Word-meaning:
Appeals to = attracts
Entertain = to interest
Distant = far away
Invented = made for the first time
Enable = make able
Requires = needs

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The radio

The radio

The outline:
1. How popular it is
2. How it is used by the police
3. Why it is important
4. Why it is popular
5. The end

The radio is so popular today that it is found in almost every home. It is indeed a wonderful invention of man. It brings a voice from the distance not only to inform but also to entertain.

Today, the radio plays a very important part in conveying news. The police use it to send messages to the remote corners of the country and to warn people against danger. They also use it to capture criminals.

The radio is also used to inform people about the latest events of the world. If a war breaks out anywhere, news about it is sent to all the countries of the world. Thus, all the countries are informed almost at the same time.

Further, the radio is an important means of entertaining people in all parts of the world. Music played in one country can be heard in another country thousands of miles of away. In this respect, the radio is superior to television. Even a man driving a motor-car can listen to beautiful music if he has radio in his car. But it is not possible to watch television inside a motor vehicle while one is driving.

The importance of the radio is therefore not difficult to realize.

Word-meaning:
Convey = make known
Criminals = those who have broken the law
Entertain = amuse, interest
Inform = given news, let know
Popular = common
Realize = understand
Superior = better than
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Caught in a storm

Caught in a storm

Notes: going to an island – sudden storm – Sea rough – Boat danced on waves – Frightened – Prayed for safety – Storm gone – Sea calm again – Returned to shore – Did not visit island.

One day I was going to an island in a boat to enjoy the sights of the island. Many other people were also going to the same island in the same boat.

Suddenly a storm broke out. The sea became very rough and the boat began to dance on the waves. Everyone in the boat, including me, was frightened. All of us now began to pray for our safety.

The wind was so strong that the boatman had great difficulty in controlling the boat. I now wished that I have not made trip.

Fortunately, the storm did not last very long, and in a short while, the sea was calm again.

The boat then returned to the shore instead of going to the island, for no one in the boat now had any more courage to travel by boat.

Word-meaning:
Enjoy = get pleasure from
Including = bringing in
Fortunately = luckily
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Friday, June 27, 2008

A robbery I have seen

A robbery I have seen

Notes: Walking along road – suddenly saw two robbers – One with a gun – attacked an old man – Took everything – Robbers ran away – Man shouted for help – No one came – I too did nothing – Afraid – Man went away – Tears in his eyes.

One morning, as I was walking along a road, I suddenly caught sight of two robbers. One of them had a gun in hand.

The robbers had attacked an old man in broad day-light. They forced the man to give them all money he had. Then the robbers disappeared from the scene as quickly as they had appeared.

The old man now shouted for help to catch the robbers; but no one cared to stop and listen to his cries or the story of the robbery. I too made no attempt to help the old man. Everyone seemed to be afraid or to feel that robbery was a common even on the roads.

The old man then slowly walked away, with tears in his eyes. I felt very sorry for him.

Word-meaning:
Attacked = caught
Forced =told.
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An unpleasant night

An unpleasant night

Notes: One night – Rain – Felt happy – Could sleep well – Went to bed – Suddenly water in room – Bed wet – Got up – Roof leaking – Soon room filled with water – Tried hard to save things – No sleep after that – Unpleasant night.

One hot night it suddenly began to rain. I felt very happy, expecting to have a sound and pleasant sleep.

I went to bed and covered myself with a blanket. Then, to my surprise, water began to flow into my room, and my bed soon became wet. I quickly got out of bed to find out how the water was getting in.

I soon noticed that the roof of my house was leaking. My room was rapidly becoming filled with water. I began to work at once to save my things from the water.

I could hardly sleep afterwards. What had been supposed to be a pleasant night had turned out to be the most unpleasant one in my whole life.

Word-meaning:
Sound = deep
Rapidly = soon
Unpleasant = bad.
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A sad event

A sad event

Notes: Walking with friend in a field – Sudden rain and lightning – Began to run for shelter – Friend struck by lightning – Fell to ground – Rushed him to hospital – Recovered after long time – Still can not walk properly – Very sad.

One evening, a friend of mine and I were walking leisurely in a large field, some distance away from our homes.

As we walked we also talked a great deal. We were so absorbed in the subjects we were talking about that we did not notice the dark clouds which were gathering in the sky.

Suddenly, it began to rain heavily. There was also much lightning. My friend and I now began to run for shelter. Within minutes, however, my friend fell to the ground after being struck by lightning. He could not move his limbs and I was frightened.

Without wasting time, I stopped a taxi and rushed my friend to the nearest hospital. He remained in hospital for several weeks to recover from the shocks and burns he had received from the lightning. But he has still not recovered completely. Even today he is unable to walk steadily.

This was indeed a very sad event, and I felt very sorry for my friend.

Word-meaning:
Limbs = hands and legs
Leisurely = slowly
Recover = get well
Absorbed = interested
Steadily = strongly
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Thursday, June 26, 2008

An unpleasant dream I once had

An unpleasant dream I once had

The outline:
1. When?
2. What kind of dream?
3. Why it was unpleasant?
4. The end

I have dreams almost every night. One dream, however, frightened me greatly. It was indeed a horrible one.

One day, after a hearty meal, I went out for a short walk. I was alone on a lonely road near a grave-yard. I was thinking of my lessons when I suddenly heard a voice calling me. I looked back and saw an old lady grinning at me. She had long filthy hair. Her face was covered with blood and her nails were very long. She was wearing a white dress. I just stared at her in fear. I dared not move or try to run. I saw her walking towards me. I was too frightened to move. Her long hands then began to stretch out to catch me. I heard her laughing at the same time. It was a horrible sound and my body turned cold. Just before she could catch me, however, I made a desperate effort to run. But she was behind me and almost caught me. I now screamed.

As soon as I screamed, however, I woke up to find that I had only been dreaming. It was a great relief indeed.

Word-meaning:
Desperate = losing all hope
Grinning = showing the teeth while smiling
Horrible = frightening
Relief = lessening of fear
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A street quarrel I have seen

A street quarrel I have seen

Notes: Walking in street – Suddenly saw two men quarreling – Stopped – One took out knife and stabbed the other – Big crowd – Man with knife tried to run away – Some people caught him – Police arrived – Arrested man with knife – Sent wounded man to hospital

While walking along a street, one day, I came across two men quarrelling with each other. They were of the same age.

Thinking that it would be a fun to watch them quarrelling. I stopped to find out the cause of their quarrel, and to see how it would end.

Soon the quarrel became so violent that one of the men suddenly took out a knife from his pocket and stabbed the other man with it. Now a big crowd collected quickly. The man who had been stabbed was bleeding profusely.

Seeing the crowd, the man with the knife tried to run away; but some people quickly caught him.

The police soon arrived on the scene in answer to a telephone call made by someone who had seen the fight. They arrested the man who had used the knife, and sent the wounded man to the hospital.

I then returned home thinking of what I had seen.

Word-meaning:
Violent = strong
Profusely = too much
Arrested = caught.
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* Describe a school mid-morning break
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A frightful dream

A frightful dream

Notes: Frightful dream – Monster with long teeth attacked village – Killed many people – Ate some – People ran about in fear – Much noise – Monster attacked me – Screamed – Woke up – only a dream – Relieved.

One night, after a heavy meal, I went to bed late. It was hot and I felt very uneasy.

When at last I fell asleep, I however had a very frightful dream. I saw a monster with long sharp teeth attack my village. It had a great appetite. It ate a number of the people it had killed.

It was indeed a terrible sight. There was blood all around, and the frightened villagers were running about in all directions, making a lot of noise.

At last the monster began to come towards me. I was so terrified that I gave out a loud scream.

I now woke up, and was greatly relieved to find that the danger I was in was not real. It was just one of my wild dreams.

Word-meaning:
Monster = frightful figure
Appetite = liking to eat
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Studies of Economics make to the extension of world trade

What contributions can studies of Economics make to the extension of world trade?

One of the main aims of all human activity is the satisfaction of certain basic needs for survival, the most fundamental of which are food and water. Of these, more difficult to obtain is food, unlike water, it does not come from the clouds. To obtain it men have to exert all their energies, mental and physical. It is this search for food that has lead to the development of international trade which now extends to all commodities, including luxuries.

The idea of world trade is of recent origin. International trade began to expand rapidly only after the Industrial Revolution, when men developed the devices for world communication and realized the necessity for obtaining the products of other countries. With the expansion of world trade, the study of Economics became of much importance to those engaged in international trade and commerce. Today, this subject is taught in all the universities and other institutions of learning throughout the world, for it has come to be realized that the study of Economies could lead to the extension of world trade by revealing new advantages of such trade.

From a study of Economics, together with Geography, it has come to be known that almost every country in the world lacks the geographical and geological conditions for the production of certain commodities. A country in which food can be grown in abundance may not be able to produce manufactured goods, and a country which is rich in mineral deposits and has the skills for the manufacture of goods, may not be able to produce food, owing to the absence of certain geographical advantages. Therefore, each country has realized the benefits of participating in world trade.

Studies of Economics have also revealed the wisdom for each country to concentrate on the production of only certain commodities, even though it has the resources for the production of many other goods. Malaysia, for example, could produce mote rice for its people in stead of depending on other countries for it; but it is appreciated that it is more advantageous for her to concentrate on the production of other goods such as rubber and tin. In the same way, many of the industrial countries in Europe could produce more food crops; but they too have realized the advantages of importing good and expanding their resources on the manufacture of goods which many of the other countries require.

This tendency on the part of the countries of the world to produce goods in which they have comparative advantages over others has led to the division of labor on an international scale. Each country specializes in the production of certain commodities and imports other commodities which other countries can produce more skillfully and advantageously. Though such an arrangement sometimes operates to the disadvantage of some countries, especially in times of war when communications is disrupted, yet it has been noted that it is still an advantage to maintain this position, for today there are enough means of averting the commercial disadvantages of war which, fortunately, does not occur too frequently. Even a cursory study of Economics would reveal the advantages of participating in world trade, on the part of the various countries of the world. It could therefore be argued that studies of Economics could make a great contribution to the extension of world trade.
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Wednesday, June 25, 2008

Luxuries of today are the necessities of tomorrow

“The luxuries of today are the necessities of tomorrow”. Discuss.

Men’s activities in the early days of their existence were concentrated on the acquisitions of sustenance. With the passage of time, however, they began to learn how to use certain things which were not essential for their survival but important for their comforts. In modern terms, those things would be described as luxuries. As they progressed further, however, and sought to increase their comforts, they began to regard those things as necessities. This has been men’s attitude towards all things, that is, in time they begin to regard as necessities what they originally regarded as luxuries.

We consider almost all of the things which were regarded only as luxuries a few years ago to be indispensable to our existence today. In the case of the radio, it plays a part of modern life. The expansion of education has strengthened men’s curiosity for world affairs. Consequently, the radio has become one of the main sources of information. It also provides much entertainment to a variety of people. Like radio, motor vehicles were firstly used by rich people. Those engaged in trade afterwards. They are regarded as necessities by almost all working men. This owes to the great economic and social changes having occurred in the last few decades. More and more industries are being established in various parts of the world, with the result, that the activities of man too have increased tremendously. Workers have to travel great distances to earn their livelihood, and the limited time at their disposal compels them to regard motor vehicles as indispensable to their activities.

The main reason for acceptance as necessities what were at first regarded as luxuries is that, in course of time men come to realize the benefits and comfort that they derive from the use of those things. Almost every invention or discovery benefits society in some way, and when the advantages of using a thing are fully realized, men tend to regard it as essential to their existence. Even decorative materials have acquired some importance in modern living, and many of them are considered necessities. Window curtains, for example, are now regarded as necessities, though in the past only the rich considered it worthwhile to use them for decorative purposes. It has now become a convention that the things in private chambers of a house should not be exposed to the public gaze. Hence, the use of curtain is considered essential to decent living in society.

Sometimes, however, considerations of social status too have led to the recognition of certain things as necessities. When a substantial number of people in society use certain things which were treated with indifference before or regarded as luxuries, it becomes necessary for others to use them to maintain their status in society. Men today are too conscious of their position in society, and to assert their social influence whenever it is possible, they gain possession of certain things such as telephones or refrigerators, which they had earlier regarded as luxuries.

Thus, most of the necessities of today are actually not necessities in the sense that they are indispensable for survival, but that they are required to add to the comforts of life and our social position, and there is no doubt that many more of the luxuries of today will come to be regarded as necessities tomorrow.
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Studies of Geography can make a great contribution to the service of man

“Studies of Geography can make a great contribution to the service of man” Discuss.

That man’s survival on the earth depends largely on geographical factors has been recognized since time immemorial. Without air and water which surround the earth, as well as food which can be derived from various sources in the world, the existence of life is indeed hard to conceive.

The realization that life is dependent on geographical elements has led to an intensive study of Geography. Men who are engaged in the production of food are continuing their studies of the water, soils and other factors which are essential for the growth of crops and livestock. Such studies are continuing to yield useful results. It has come to be known that all plants and animals do not require the same conditions for survival, and that a plant or an animal that perishes under certain conditions in one area could thrive in a different environment. In other words, different plants and animals draw their nourishment from different sources of the world. This knowledge has enabled producers of food to make the best use of their resources. No longer do they attempt to grow crops or livestock in areas which are known to be unsuitable for the purpose.

Geographical studies have also revealed new sources of power. The discovery of coal and mineral oil has revolutionized the lives of men in all parts of the world. Coal and mineral oil are used to operate machinery for the production of goods, for incineration and illuminations, as well as for propulsion. Many streets in all the towns in the world are illuminated by oil lamps; aeroplanes are propelled by mineral oil, and locomotives require either coal or mineral oil for propulsion. Indeed, coal and mineral are used for a diversity of purposes today.

The discovery of other minerals too such as iron one, has made a great contribution to the service of man. Iron is used for the construction of bridges and buildings, for the manufacture of motor vehicles and other means of transport, which are completely changed the social habits of men and for numerous other purposes. The discoveries and inventions of the modern age have increased men’s leisure and comfort. Men no longer have to walk long distances to attend to their business. Fast running vehicles enable them to reach their places of work with ease and speed. All this is the result of the studies of Geography, to a great extent. In brief, modern civilization is the product of the industrial developments that have taken place since the time men learned to exploit the mineral resources of the earth.

The advantages that men have derived from the use of the natural resources of the world have served as an incentive to deeper studies in Geography. More and more discoveries are being made by geographers and each discovery is adding substantially to the progress of the human race. Geographers are even exploring the depths of the oceans, in their eagerness to make new contributions to knowledge and social progress, and they have achieved a great measure of success. Thus, it must be admitted that “Studies of Geography can make a great contribution to the service of man”

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Great literature belongs all ages and all countries

“Great literature belongs not to one age but to all ages; not to one country but all countries”. Discuss.

Literature, a narrative of human events, reflects all the hopes, emotions, feelings, sorrows and frustrations that men have had in the course of their long struggle for survival in this beautiful world. Its appeal is therefore universal.

Since the time men learned how to read and write, some people have always felt the urge to exercise their literary skills for the sheer pleasure of writing. Fascinated by the beauty of language and ideas, many scholars, since the dawn of history, have engaged themselves in exploring new avenues of thought, and in the process contributed to the production of great literary works. The sufferings of humanity have also contributed their share in impelling writers in all lands to write in the most vivid and expressive language.

As man is the theme of all literature, any great literature is appreciated in all countries, at all times. The works of great writers, such as Homer and Shakespeare, have indeed become immortal for their universal appeal. They have been read for centuries in all countries. Such writers have revealed human nature to all generation of men. It is now realized that the fundamental emotions and desires of men are the same everywhere, though they may be divided by race, language and culture. Even their problems are the same. An Asian has the same problems of obtaining food or for providing for his family as a European has. Both laugh at and cry for the same things. The recognition of these facts has increased the feelings of oneness among the people of the world.

The ideas that have been expressed by great writers have influenced the people of all countries. When a good idea is expressed by a writer of one country, it is absorbed by people in many other lands. The ideas that the Greeks had centuries ago on a government and society have continued to influence the minds of men till this day. In the same way, the literature of many other countries has influenced the thinking of the people of the world.

Great literature reveals the common ties that exist among men. By emphasizing the bonds of sympathy between men, it helps the people of one country to look with affection upon the people of another country, and makes men conscious of their common destiny. For this reason, many great works in one language have been translated into several other languages. This had the effect of promoting better understanding among the people of the world and widening the mental horizons of men. There is therefore a great urge today to read the literature and history of all countries. Thus, there is much truth in the statement that “Great literature belongs not to one age but to all ages; not to one country but to all countries”.
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What are the qualities of a good judge?

What in your opinion are the qualities of a good judge?

The judiciary, especially in a democratic state, is well known for its impartiality. In numerous cases it has taken decisions even against the state for the achievement of the ends of justice. This impartiality of the judicial system in a democratic state can be attributed to the good qualities of judges who have always asserted their independence from executive control.

The qualities of a good judge include patience, wisdom, courage, firmness, alertness, incorruptibility and the gifts of sympathy and insight. In a democracy, a judge is accorded great respect by the state as well as its citizens. He is not only permitted to assert his freedom and impartiality but also expected to use all his forensic skill to protect the rights of the individual against arbitrariness. Though such a state of affairs makes it easy for the judge to exercise his functions, he still requires many qualities to perform his duties effectively.

In the execution of his functions, a judge has to exercise patience and alertness so that he can hear all the arguments of the contending parties to a dispute and arrive at a wise decision. An impatient judge can hardly act with reason, however wise he may be. Patience and alertness are therefore essential qualities of a good judge.

The decisions of a judge sometimes provoke the anger of certain individuals and he becomes the victim of revenge. In condemning a person to death, for example, a judge might cause the relatives of the condemned man to nurse feelings of revenge against him. The life of the judge is thus exposed to danger, sometimes even after his retirement from judicial service. Therefore, a good judge is also a man of courage, who is incorruptible and prepared to accept the consequences of his decisions. A pusillanimous and corruptible judge is no bulwark of justice.

A good judge is, however, not destitute of sympathy. He considers the feelings of all parties with sympathy and understanding. His knowledge of the law and human affairs is so extensive that he experiences little difficulty in grasping the main issues of the dispute quickly. His insight into human nature enables him to detect the criminal almost immediately; yet he is prepared, at times to set the accused free if the charge against him is not framed properly by the police. This proves his impartiality, an attribute that inspires the confidence of the citizens in his ability and sense of justice.

These arguments point to the conclusion that a good judge is a person of many qualities.

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Peace happiness United Nations Organization

Do you think that the United Nations Organization perform a useful function in promoting peace and happiness in the world?

A successor to the former League of Nations, the United Nation Organization has played a unique role in international relations, since its inception at the end of the Second World War.

The failure of the League of Nations to live up to the ideals of peace and harmony among nations revealed many weaknesses and deficiencies in that organization, which could not prevent bellicosity or belligerency. But leaders of the world were determined to continue their efforts for the prevention of further wars, and it was this aspiration for peace that led to the creation, without another world was, and the tremendous expansion of its international activities, indicates that the United Nations Organization has not only acquired viability but also achieved a considerable measure of success in the pursuit of peace. Today, the activities of this organization extend to all fields of human endeavor.

It is true, however, that wars have been fought in various parts of the world such as the Korean and Congo Wars, despite the existence of this large organization, whose members include almost all the important countries of the world, including Communist China, who had at one time earned the odium of many countries as the instigator of wars. Wars have also been fought between its own members, in defiance of one of its main principles forbidding wars among its members. Even today there is a war in Bosnia and perhaps there will be more wars in the future; but the armed intervention of the United Nations Organization in all the major conflicts has at least restricted the wars to certain areas and removed the threat of another world war. In many cases the United Nations has also been able to persuade the belligerent parties to cease fighting and agree to settle their political differences by negotiations. This fact itself proves the usefulness of this organization, though doubts have been expressed in certain quarters about its effectiveness.

The United Nations Organization has also made a great contribution to the advancement of the people of the world. Through its subsidiary organs, such as the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (U.N.E.S.C.O.) it has extended its activities to the remotest regions of the earth. It has at its disposal the services of a large number of specialists of all nationalities, who are sent round the world to contribute their talent, experience and knowledge to the welfare of the human race. These specialists have worked with a missionary zeal in the countries to which they were sent, and as a result of their work and advice, many countries have made tremendous progress in all spheres of national life. Doctors, scientists and educationalists from the United Nations, as well as the financial aid that this organization has given to several countries have played their part in promoting the happiness and welfare of the people of the world.

It is therefore hard to deny that the United Nations does perform a useful function in the promotion of peace and happiness in the world.
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Human and courage

Human and courage

Courage, like all human qualities, is an abstract thing; but it is this quality in man that has enabled him to advance against all natural obstacles through the centuries.

Endowed with intelligence and manual skills, man’s courage, even in the early days of his existence, enabled him to accept the challenges of nature. He not only lived in the midst of wild animals but also began to domesticate many of them for his own advantage. Soon, even the most ferocious and largest of animals learnt to respect his courage. They began to avoid him as far as they could.

Indeed, without courage man would never be able to advance from the primitive stage. He would never try to reach the skies or explore the depths of the oceans; but impelled by courage, he left his immediate confines to defy nature, and soon made the world more hospitable and secure for himself. It is this irrepressible energy of man, aided by his courage, that has contributed to the comfort and happiness that people everywhere enjoy today.

Courage is therefore indispensable to almost all human activities. Men need courage to face their enemies and the uncertainties of life. They need courage to operate machinery, to fly aeroplanes, to construct high buildings. In fact, they need courage to meet all the dangers that constantly threaten them in all their pursuits. Even to accept the responsibilities of a family requires extreme courage.

Human courage and valor have been displayed most strikingly in all the battles that have been fought in the history of mankind. Men have fought against men with deadly weapons to protect themselves their countries, families and home. For the protection and comfort of their families, men have also faced other dangers. They have defied dangerous currents in rivers to bring food for their families by boats and rafts. They have also defied storm and battled the waves of the oceans to extract food from them.

Courage, however, does not assert itself always. The instinct of self-preservation usually impels men to seek safety in fight or concealment whenever there is a threat to personal security. It is in moments of desperation that courage asserts itself and enables one to meet all threats; and it is in such moments that men also discover their own physical strength, and other advantages of resistance. For instance, a man who is attacked by an animal will fight fiercely in an effort to avert tragedy to himself, and in the process discover his own strength and the advantages of using certain weapons to overpower his adversary.

Feelings of loyalty and devotion too have often aroused the courage of men. A person who is devoted to his family fights tooth and nail to protect his family from destruction or extinction, whatever the consequences to himself. Similarly, a loyal servant may give his life for the protection of his master.

Thus, courage is the most important quality in man. He needs it for his own advancement and to meet all the challenges of his existence.
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